The Epistle to the Galatians , often shortened to Galatians , is the ninth book of the New Testament. Scholars have suggested that this is either the Roman province of Galatia in southern Anatolia , or a large region defined by an ethnic group of Celtic people in central Anatolia. Paul is principally concerned with the controversy surrounding Gentile Christians and the Mosaic Law during the Apostolic Age. Paul argues that the Gentile Galatians do not need to adhere to the tenets of the Mosaic Law , particularly circumcision , by contextualizing the role of the law in light of the revelation of Christ. Galatians has exerted enormous influence on the history of Christianity, the development of Christian theology, and the study of the apostle Paul.
Epistle to the Galatians
The Epistle to the Galatians , often shortened to Galatians , is the ninth book of the New Testament. Scholars have suggested that this is either the Roman province of Galatia in southern Anatolia , or a large region defined by an ethnic group of Celtic people in central Anatolia. Paul is principally concerned with the controversy surrounding Gentile Christians and the Mosaic Law during the Apostolic Age.
Paul argues that the Gentile Galatians do not need to adhere to the tenets of the Mosaic Law , particularly circumcision , by contextualizing the role of the law in light of the revelation of Christ. Galatians has exerted enormous influence on the history of Christianity, the development of Christian theology, and the study of the apostle Paul. No original of the letter is known to survive.
The earliest reasonably complete version available to scholars today, named P 46 , dates to approximately AD, approximately years after the original was presumably drafted. A majority of scholars agree that Galatians was written between the late 40s and early 50s,  although some date the original composition to c. Biblical scholars agree that Galatians is a true example of Paul's writing. The main arguments in favor of the authenticity of Galatians include its style and themes, which are common to the core letters of the Pauline corpus.
George S. Duncan described the authenticity of Paul as its author as "unquestioned In every line it betrays its origin as a genuine letter of Paul. The central dispute in the letter concerns the question of how Gentiles could convert to Christianity, which shows that this letter was written at a very early stage in church history, when the vast majority of Christians were Jewish or Jewish proselytes , which historians refer to as the Jewish Christians.
Another indicator that the letter is early is that there is no hint in the letter of a developed organization within the Christian community at large. This puts it during the lifetime of Paul himself. Weisse and Frank R. Paul's letter is addressed "to the churches of Galatia" Galatians 1: A minority of scholars have argued that the "Galatia" is an ethnic reference to a Celtic people living in northern Asia Minor , but most agree that it is a geographical reference to the Roman province in central Asia Minor, which had been settled by immigrant Celts in the s BC and retained Gaulish features of culture and language in Paul's day.
Acts of the Apostles records Paul traveling to the "region of Galatia and Phrygia ", which lies immediately west of Galatia. Some [ who? They seem to have been composed mainly of gentile converts Galatians 4: The Galatians appear to have been receptive to the teaching of these newcomers, and the epistle is Paul's response to what he sees as their willingness to turn from his teaching.
The identity of these "opponents" is disputed. However, the majority of modern scholars view them as Jewish Christians, who taught that in order for converts to belong to the People of God , they must be subject to some or all of the Jewish Law, i. The letter indicates controversy concerning circumcision , Sabbath observance , and the Mosaic Covenant. It would appear, from Paul's response, that they cited the example of Abraham , who was circumcised as a mark of receiving the covenant blessings Genesis They certainly appear to have questioned Paul's authority as an apostle , perhaps appealing to the greater authority of the Jerusalem church governed by James brother of Jesus.
The North Galatian view holds that the epistle was written very soon after Paul's second visit to Galatia Acts In this view, the visit to Jerusalem , mentioned in Galatians 2: Consequently, the epistle seems to have been written after the Council of Jerusalem. The similarity between this epistle and the epistle to the Romans has led to the conclusion that they were both written at roughly the same time, during Paul's stay in Macedonia in roughly 56— This third date takes the word "quickly" in Gal.
Meier suggests that Galatians was "written in the middle or late 50s, only a few years after the Antiochene incident he narrates". The South Galatian view holds that Paul wrote Galatians before or shortly after the First Jerusalem Council, probably on his way to it, and that it was written to churches he had presumably planted during either his time in Tarsus he would have traveled a short distance, since Tarsus is in Cilicia after his first visit to Jerusalem as a Christian,  or during his first missionary journey, when he traveled throughout southern Galatia.
If it was written to the believers in South Galatia, it would likely have been written in A third theory  is that Galatians 2: This theory holds that the epistle was written before the Council was convened, possibly making it the earliest of Paul's epistles. According to this theory, the revelation mentioned Gal 2: This view holds that the private speaking about the gospel shared among the Gentiles precludes the Acts 15 visit, but fits perfectly with Acts It further holds that continuing to remember the poor Gal.
In addition, the exclusion of any mention of the letter of Acts 15 is seen to indicate that such a letter did not yet exist, since Paul would have been likely to use it against the legalism confronted in Galatians. Finally, this view doubts Paul's confrontation of Peter Gal. If this view is correct, the epistle should be dated somewhere around 47, depending on other difficult to date events, such as Paul's conversion. Kirsopp Lake found this view less likely and wondered why it would be necessary for the Jerusalem Council Acts 15 to take place at all if the issue were settled in Acts Lightfoot also objected to this view since it "clearly implies that his [Paul's] Apostolic office and labours were well known and recognized before this conference.
Defenders of this view, such as Ronald Fung, disagree with both parts of Lightfoot's statement, insisting a Paul received his "Apostolic Office" at his conversion Gal. Fung holds, then, that Paul's apostolic mission began almost immediately in Damascus Acts 9: The citation here is based on the content of the gospel. Alternative outlines have been introduced based on the rhetorical form of the letter.
This epistle addresses the question of whether the Gentiles in Galatia were obligated to follow Mosaic Law to be part of the Christ community. After an introductory address Galatians 1: In the first two chapters, Paul discusses his life before Christ and his early ministry, including interactions with other apostles in Jerusalem.
This is the most extended discussion of Paul's past that we find in the Pauline letters cf. Philippians 3: Chapter 3 exhorts the Galatian believers to stand fast in the faith as it is in Jesus. Paul engages in an exegetical argument, drawing upon the figure of Abraham and the priority of his faith to the covenant of circumcision. Paul explains that the law was introduced as a temporary measure, one that is no longer efficacious now that the seed of Abraham, Christ, has come.
Chapter 4 then concludes with a summary of the topics discussed and with the benediction, followed by 5: In the conclusion of the epistle, Paul wrote, "See with what large letters I am writing to you with my own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name 2Thessalonians 2: In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences.
He writes it, too, in large, bold characters Gr. Alternatively, some commentators have postulated that Paul's thorn in the flesh was poor eyesight, which caused him to write in characteristically large letters. Galatians also contains a catalogue of vices and virtues , a popular formulation of ancient Christian ethics. Probably the most famous single statement made in the Epistle, by Paul, is in chapter 3, verse Position 1 emphasises the immediate context of the verse and notes that it is embedded in a discussion about justification: Position 2 reminds its critics that the "whole letter context" is very much about how people got on in the here and now together, and in fact the discussion about justification came out of an actual example of people treating other people differently 2: In so doing Paul clearly takes his Christ movement out of the orbit of Judaism and into an entirely different milieu.
Paul's stance constitutes a major contrast to the position of James, brother of Jesus , whose group in Jerusalem adhered to the observance of Torah. Many scholars question whether Paul's view dovetails with Jesus' own teachings concerning the Law. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series of articles on Paul in the Bible Pauline literature. I Corinthians II Corinthians. Galatians Ephesians. Philippians Colossians.
I Thessalonians II Thessalonians. Pastoral epistles. Philemon Hebrews. Paul the Apostle. Related literature. Lost epistles Apocalypse of Paul. Coptic Apocalypse of Paul. Corinthians to Paul Acts of Paul. Paul and Thecla Peter and Paul. Prayer of Paul. See also. Apostle Christian Pauline Christianity. Matthew Mark Luke John.
Main article: Authorship of the Pauline Epistles. See also: Biblical law in Christianity. Yale Anchor Bible Dictionary. Yale University Press. Galatians Through the Centuries. Misquoting Jesus: San Francisco: A Textual Commentary on the New Testament 2nd ed.
The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New . If this view is correct, the epistle should be dated somewhere around 47, depending on other difficult to date events, such as Paul's conversion. Generally speaking those who hold to a North Galatia theory, date the book on or about the time of Paul's Ephesian ministry, ca. 56 A.D. On the.
There is a scholarly consensus that Galatians was written by Paul, however, there is not a consensus as to the date of writing, with estimates running from the late 40s to the late 50s. The letter to the Galatians does not mention the Jerusalem Council, and the omission is telling. Paul is extremely emotional in Galatians in his opposition to the "Judaizers", Jewish Christians who followed him to Galatia and had been teaching the gentile believers there that they needed to be circumcised and follow the law of Moses.
Well this method of composition was written by.
The Epistle to the Galatians is a wonderful document designed to declare the truth of salvation by grace alone and the result of such a salvation; namely, a life of increasing freedom from sin, on the one hand, and enslavement to Christ on the other. To it I am as it were in wedlock.
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For many students of the New Testament, the dating of Galatians is tedious work which does not seem to have much pay-off in reading the book itself. Whether the book is addressed to Northern or Southern Galatia or before or after Acts 15 seems like a pointless question, but it is in fact important since it will influence how we read the conflict between Paul and Peter in Gal 2. On the one hand, Gal 2: The issue is gentile circumcision and the consensus reached according to Gal 2 is that Gentiles are not required to submit. As I read Polhill , he seems to lean toward this view, and the fact that he treats Acts If it this is the case, then Paul writes Galatians in response to a report he has heard from the Galatian churches while he is in Ephesus or Corinth, perhaps in 53, but possibly as late as
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Of the seven undisputed Pauline letters, Galatians is the most difficult to date. Paul is still on good terms with the Galatians in 1 Corinthians, and has recently given them directions concerning the collection. By 2 Corinthians and Romans, they are no longer mentioned as participants in the collection. The rupture with the Galatian churches, to which the epistle to the Galatians bears witness, has occurred in between the writing of 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians. Paul has lost those churches, and Galatians is his last desperate attempt to win back people he sees as apostate. That Paul asked the Galatians to contribute is clear from I Cor Mark also compares I Cor 7: Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing. I Cor 7: In Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision has any value.
Later interpolation in 1Thessalonians and Hebrews, plus dating of Galatians.
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Dating the New Testament
Это совсем не обрадует коммандера Стратмора. Клушар приложил руку ко лбу. Очевидно, волнение отняло у него все силы. Его лицо залила мертвенная бледность. Беккер предпринял последнюю попытку: - Мистер Клушар, я хотел бы получить показания этого немца и его спутницы. Вы не скажете, где они могли остановиться. Клушар закрыл глаза, силы покинули.
Он едва дышал. - Хоть что-нибудь, - настаивал Беккер. - Может, вы знаете имя этой женщины. Клушар некоторое время молчал, потом потер правый висок. Он был очень бледен.
Стратмор улыбнулся, не разжимая губ. - Вы читаете мои мысли, мисс Флетчер. Сьюзан Флетчер словно была рождена для тайных поисков в Интернете. Год назад высокопоставленный сотрудник аппарата Белого дома начал получать электронные письма с угрозами, отправляемые с некоего анонимного адреса. АНБ поручили разыскать отправителя. Хотя агентство имело возможность потребовать от переадресующей компании открыть ему имя этого клиента, оно решило прибегнуть к более изощренному методу - следящему устройству.
Фактически Сьюзан создала программу-маяк направленного действия, замаскированный под элемент электронной почты.
Epistle to the Galatians
Этот звонок будет для Хейла полной неожиданностью. Он запаникует и в конце концов, столкнувшись с группой вооруженных людей, ничего не сможет поделать. После минутного упорства ему придется уступить. Но если я вызову агентов безопасности, весь мой план рухнет, - подумал. Хейл сдавил горло Сьюзан немного сильнее, и она вскрикнула от боли. - Ну что, вы решили. Я ее убиваю.
Я лишь хотел спросить, есть ли в городе клубы, где собираются молодые люди - панки. - Клубы. Для панков? - переспросил бармен, странно посмотрев на Беккера. - Да. Есть ли в Севилье такое место, где тусуются панки.
Джабба повернулся к монитору и вскинул руки. - Почему среди нас нет ни одного ядерного физика. Сьюзан, глядя на мультимедийный клип, понимала, что все кончено. Она следила за смертью Танкадо - в который уже. Он хотел говорить, но слова застревали у него в горле.
Конец веревочки. Он набрал номер. - Escortes Belen, - ответил мужчина. И снова Беккер изложил свою проблему: - Si, si, senor. Меня зовут сеньор Ролдан. Буду рад вам помочь. У нас две рыжеволосые.Galatians 5